Captions are usually positioned below the person who is speaking, and they include descriptions of sounds (such as gunshots or closing doors) and music. Blu-ray had more consumer companies supporting it, but HD DVD was cheaper and had Microsoft behind it. Supposedly the «jitter» between frames caused by differences in the drawings or in their alignment causes problems. An animation expert at Disney pointed out that this doesn’t happen with modern animation techniques. Before DVDs there were laserdiscs (see 2.6), which were occasionally subject to what was commonly called laser rot: the deterioration of the aluminum layer due to oxidation or other chemical change.
There is RF-based technology that can make DVDs unplayable until they are passed through an activation field at checkout, but it hasn’t been commercially deployed. [1.50] What are Superbit, Infinifilm, and other variations of DVD? There is one single DVD-Video standard. Will it work in all players? A dual-layer disc has two layers of data, one of them semi-transparent so that the laser can focus through it and read the second layer. See 3.8 for further explanation of interlaced and progressive scanning. These often have English-only soundtracks with BBFC censoring. «D2» and «D3» identify European DVDs that are not sold in the UK and Ireland. Almost 19,000 discs were purchased in the first two weeks of the US launch — more than expected.
Most modern PAL TVs can handle this «pseudo-PAL» signal. A few multi-standard PAL players output true 3.58 NTSC from NTSC discs, which requires an NTSC TV or a multi-standard TV. Some players have a switch to choose 60-Hz PAL or true NTSC output when playing NTSC discs. Scratches may cause minor data errors that are easily corrected. This loss of high-frequency information can show up as «ringing» or blurry spots along edges (called the Gibbs effect). However, at the data rates commonly used for DVD this problem does not usually occur. [1.21] Why do some discs require side flipping? Major chains such as Blockbuster and West Coast Entertainment rent DVDs in many locations. The MultiRead logo guarantees compatibility with CD-R and CD-RW media, but unfortunately, few manufacturers are using it. Given Fox’s strong support for Blu-ray from early on, parts of this story are hard to swallow, but Sony was apparently writing large checks in an effort to end the stalemate and get on with business.